Medical Express

ISSN (print): 2318-8111

ISSN (online): 2358-0429

Issue: 4(5)2017 - 6 Articles

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

1 - The effect of quercetin on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis

Ahmet Kahraman; Ayhan Vurmaz; Halit Buğra Koca; Hilmi Uyar; Abdulkadir Çat; Çiğdem Tokyol; Coşkun Polat; Tülay Köken

MEDICALEXPRESS 2017;4(5):M170501

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OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective and therapeutic effects of quercetin on pancreatic injury in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.
METHOD: Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups, eight per group: (CT): untreated controls, (CER) treated with cerulein, 50 µg/kg body weight; (Q+CER) pre-treatment with quercetin, 100 mg/kg body weight, followed by cerulein, 50 µg/kg; (CER+Q) post-treatment, cerulein followed by quercetin, same doses. Cerulein was divided into four doses, given at 1-hour intervals by intraperitoneal injection. Quercetin was given either 1-hour before (in pre-treatment group) or 1-hour after (in post-treatment group) cerulein. Pancreatic malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl, myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6), reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG, respectively) were measured. Histology of the pancreas was studied.
RESULTS: (1) MDA, carbonyl, MPO, TNF-a and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in CER vs CT rats. (2) MDA, carbonyl, MPO and TNF-α decreased significantly in pre-treated rats vs. CER. (3) MDA, MPO, TNF-α, IL-6 were significantly lower in post-treated rats vs. CER. (4) The reduced vs. oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) of was significantly lower CER vs. CT rats. (5) Pre- and post-treatment with quercetin significantly increased this ratio. (6) Pancreatic histology showed that quercetin had no significant effect on the histological image of the pancreas
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that quercetin can attenuate the severity of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis by acting as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and combating oxidative stress. Further studies are needed to clearly explain its utility on acute pancreatitis.


Keywords: Acute pancreatitis, cerulein, quercetin, oxidative stress.

2 - Patients with chronic high spinal cord injury can be safely treated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation: cardiovascular function is unaffected

Letícia Vargas Almeida; Carolina Lins; Janaina Tancredo; Renato Varoto; Wilson Nadruz Junior; Alberto Cliquet Junior

MEDICALEXPRESS 2017;4(5):M170502

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OBJECTIVE: To identify changes in blood pressure and heart rate in individuals with chronic paraplegia undergone neuromuscular electrical stimulation treatment.
METHOD: Design: Observational prospective. Participants: Twenty individuals with chronic paraplegia (neurological level above T6) belonging to two different groups (G1 and G2) were submitted to an upper limb exercise test. G1 patients (n=13) had been treated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (25Hz, pulses of 300μs, 100V) for 2 years or more, at least once a week; G2 patients (n=7) did not receive neuromuscular electrical stimulation treatment; G3 individuals (n=6) were healthy volunteers. Procedures: Arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured during four phases of the exercise test: at initial rest, during warmup, during the exercise itself, and at rest after the exercise.
RESULTS: Systolic and diastolic blood pressures showed no statistical difference between groups. In the comparison between exercise phases, regardless of the group, systolic pressure was significantly higher and diastolic pressure significantly lower at the end of the exercise itself, when compared to all other phases. Resting heart rate was significantly lower in healthy controls vs. G1 and G2, which were not significantly different between themselves. Exercise increased heart rate in all groups.
CONCLUSION: This study showed that the groups are normotensive and homogeneous in their results; heart rate was higher in both paraplegic groups compared to healthy controls, but no difference was found between treated vs. untreated groups. Thus, neuromuscular electrical stimulation is a safe and effective way to treat individuals with chronic paraplegia.


Keywords: Spinal Cord Injury, Paraplegia, Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation, Autonomic Dysreflexia.

3 - Oral manifestations in children with mucopolysaccharidosis

Sara Ponciano; Benedita Sampaio-Maia; Cristina Areias

MEDICALEXPRESS 2017;4(5):M170503

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BACKGROUND: Patients with mucopolysaccharidosis have several changes of the stomatognathic complex, representing a challenge for dentists.
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate and characterize oral health in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis in a reference center of Portugal.
METHOD: The sample consisted of twelve participants with mucopolysaccharidosis followed in Metabolic Diseases Unit of the S. João Hospital Centre and twelve healthy participants followed at Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Porto. The clinical oral evaluation was performed by a complete extra-oral and intra-oral examination to assess the presence of oral pathologies, gingival index and occlusion status.
RESULTS: Mucoplysaccaridosis patients and controls presented similar age ranges and sex distribution. In comparison to controls, children with mucopolysaccharidosis presented a higher prevalence of tooth decay, gingival bleeding, macroglossia, dental hypoplasia, lingual interposition, delayed tooth eruption, anterior open bite, right and left posterior cross-bite, limitation of mouth opening, alteration on the size and shape of the teeth, diastemata and maxillary compression.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mucopolysaccharidosis have a high prevalence eruption delay, teeth morphology alterations, occlusal problems, dental caries and bleeding gums, highlighting the need of oral health care providers to improve diagnostics and preventive protocols to overcome the factors that limit the oral health of these patients and promote together with parent/caregiver efficient oral care strategies.


Keywords: Mucopolysaccharidosis, oral health, pediatrics, dental manifestations

4 - Correlation between molecular features and genetic subtypes of Glioblastoma: critical analysis in 109 cases

Thais F Galatro; Paula Sola; Isabele F Moretti; Flavio K Miura; Sueli M Oba-Shinjo, Suely KN Marie; Antonio M Lerario

MEDICALEXPRESS 2017;4(5):M170504

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OBJECTIVE: Glioblastoma, the most common and lethal brain tumor, is also one of the most defying forms of malignancies in terms of treatment. Integrated genomic analysis has searched deeper into the molecular architecture of GBM, revealing a new sub-classification and promising precision in the care for patients with specific alterations.
METHOD: Here, we present the classification of a Brazilian glioblastoma cohort into its main molecular subtypes. Using a high-throughput DNA sequencing procedure, we have classified this cohort into proneural, classical and mesenchymal sub-types. Next, we tested the possible use of the overexpression of the EGFR and CHI3L1 genes, detected through immunohistochemistry, for the identification of the classical and mesenchymal subtypes, respectively.
RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that genetic identification of the glioblastoma subtypes is not possible using single targeted mutations alone, particularly in the case of the Mesenchymal subtype. We also show that it is not possible to single out the mesenchymal cases through CHI3L1 expression.
CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the Mesenchymal subtype, the most malignant of the glioblastomas, needs further and more thorough research to be ensure adequate identification.


Keywords: glioblastoma, classification, DNA sequence analysis, CHI3L1, EGFR.

5 - Relevant coexpression of STMN1, MELK and FOXM1 in glioblastoma and review of the impact of STMN1 in cancer biology

Fernanda de Oliveira Serachi; Suely Kazue Nagahashi Marie; Sueli Mieko Oba-Shinjo

MEDICALEXPRESS 2017;4(5):M170505

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OBJECTIVE: To analyze the associated expression of STMN1, MELK and FOXM1 in search of alternative drugable target in glioblastoma (GBM) and to review relevant functional roles of STMN1 in cancer biology.
METHOD: STMN1, MELK and FOXM1 expressions were studied by quantitative PCR and their coexpressions were analyzed in two independent glioblastoma cohorts. A review of articles in indexed journals that addressed the multiple functional aspects of STMN1 was conducted, focusing on the most recent reports discussing its role in cancer, in chemoresistance and in upstream pathways involving MELK and FOXM1.
RESULTS: Significant associated expressions of MELK and FOXM1 were observed with STMN1 in GBM. Additionally, the literature review highlighted the relevance of STMN1 in cancer progression.
CONCLUSION: STMN1 is very important to induce events in cancer development and progression, as cellular proliferation, migration, and drug resistance. Therefore, STMN1 can be an important therapeutic target for a large number of human cancers. In glioblastoma, the most aggressive brain tumor, the MELK/FOXM1/STMN1 presented significant associated expressions, thus pointing MELK and FOXM1 as alternative targets for therapy instead of STMN1, which is highly expressed in normal brain tissue. Continuous functional research to understand the STMN1 signaling pathway is worthwhile to improve the therapeutic approaches in cancer.


Keywords: Stathmin, cytoskeleton, microtubules, glioblastoma.

6 - Ancestry indicative markers in HIV positive patients in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

Lenicy Lucas de Miranda Cerqueira; Claudinéia Araújo; Beatriz Santos Ribeiro

MEDICALEXPRESS 2017;4(5):M170506

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OBJECTIVE: Ancestry Indicative Markers are used to define the allelic frequency of genes from different ethnic groups in populations of certain localities of interest, for analysis of population ancestry and estimation of ethnic mixture. This work aimed to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of the ancestry Indicative Markers SB-19.3, APO, AT3 / ID and PV-92 and to determine the existence of polymorphisms for these markers in the state of Mato Grosso.
METHOD: The study aimed to estimate allelic and genotype frequencies, adherence to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and genetic differentiation in the sample of 238 controls formed by HIV free individuals residing in twenty-six different municipalities in the state, collected at the Júlio Muller University Hospital and in a sample of 516 HIV-positive patients also residing in the state.
RESULTS: The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test revealed an imbalance between the observed and expected proportions of Sb19.3 and APO loci in the control population. Applying the genetic differentiation test, control populations and HIV-positive patients differed for the four loci analyzed.
CONCLUSION: The population of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil proved to be very heterogeneous, confirming hypotheses about its history of colonization. Control populations and HIV-positive patients differed for the four loci analyzed.


Keywords: Ancestry, Mato Grosso, population.