Medical Express

ISSN (print): 2318-8111

ISSN (online): 2358-0429

Author's Articles

18 result(s) for: Antônio Egidio Nardi

Suicide among elderly: a systematic review

Verônica de Medeiros Alves; Ana Claudia C. de Ornelas Maia; Antonio Egidio Nardi

MEDICALEXPRESS 2014;1(1):9-13 - REVIEW

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This article aimed to perform a systematic review of suicide among the elderly. The literature review was conducted using three databases (SCOPUS, Medline/Pubmed and ISI Web of Science) using the terms suicide and elderly, suicide and older adult and suicide attempt. The publication dates were restricted between 2008 and 2013. Review or theoretical articles were excluded; only epidemiologic studies were selected. A total of 1613 references were found, but only seven met the inclusion criteria, namely articles that assessed the prevalence of suicide in elderly through retrospective cohort studies. The average study period was 7.9 years. The following average annual suicide rates were calculated: Italy (173/cases-year), New York (118.1/cases-year and 51 cases/year - two studies), Ireland (92/cases-year), Finland (12.9/cases-year), Turkey (3.5/cases-year) and England (3/cases-year). All of the studies reported that elderly males had a higher rate of death by suicide compared to elderly females. Hanging, shooting by firearms, drowning and jumping from high places were prevalent suicide methods. Three articles reported that death by suicide was associated with the presence of psychiatric disorders, psychoactive substance use, and physical illnesses, as well as economic and emotional reasons. This review determined that the topic of suicide among the elderly is rarely discussed and that little is known about influences, causes, or prevalence of suicide among the elderly. Moreover, neither the type of health monitoring nor the medications that are used as interventions for eventual suicide victims are commonly reported in elderly populations.



Keywords: Suicide; Elderly; Primary Care.

Emotional memory in patients with agoraphobic panic disorder compared to a control group

Anna Lucia Spear King; Alexandre Valença; Adriana Cardoso; Antonio Egidio Nardi

MEDICALEXPRESS 2014;1(2):81-86 - ORIGINAL RESEARCH

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OBJECTIVES: Rational minds make logical connections between cause and effect, whereas emotional minds make no such distinctions, following instinctive logic. This paper investigates episodic emotional memory in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia in comparison to a control group.
METHOD: Sixty volunteers, 30 patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia and 30 healthy controls were exposed to the same slideshow of 11 slides, but randomly exposed to two different narrated versions, namely one emotional and one neutral. Each group of 30 participants was randomly subdivided into two subgroups of 15; each subgroup of patients and controls was exposed either to the emotional or to the neutral narrative. One week later patients and controls returned to answer questionnaires about the slides and respective narrated stories.
RESULTS: Panic disorder patients exposed to the emotional content of the story showed a significantly enhanced emotional memory, evidenced by a better recollection of the emotional narration when compared to patients exposed to the neutral version. Compared to controls, panic disorder patients exhibited greater discrepancy between the emotional versus the neutral narrative.
CONCLUSION: Results showed that the panic disorder patients were significantly impacted by the content of the emotional version of the story, with respect to their emotional memory; the same was not observed for the control group exposed to the same emotional version of the story. We conclude that the characteristics of the panic disorder condition had an influence on emotional memory.



Keywords: memory; panic; neuroscience; emotion.

Aerobic training intervention in panic disorder: a case-series study

Raphael Marques Gomes; Aline Sardinha; Claudio Gil Soares de Araújo; Antônio Egidio Nardi; Andrea Camaz Deslandes

MEDICALEXPRESS 2014;1(4):195-201 - ORIGINAL RESEARCH

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OBJECTIVES: The anxiolytic effect of regular aerobic exercise in panic disorder patients is well known. However, a protocol for aerobic exercise intervention as an adjunct non-pharmacologic treatment for panic disorder is still lacking. Our aim was to propose and present a pilot study about an aerobic training protocol that could be replicable, safe and viable for other clinical trials with panic disorder patients.
METHODS: A total of 24 exercise sessions (twice/week) of treadmill walking at controlled intensity (75% VO2max) were completed by four panic disorder patients.
RESULTS: No major complications were observed. The benefits of the aerobic training intervention were reflected in favorable changes in the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index and in the Body Sensations Questionnaire scores, in spite of no significant differences in physiological variables.
CONCLUSIONS: The proposed protocol of aerobic training intervention was shown to be a safe and potentially useful tool as adjunct non-pharmacologic treatment of panic disorder. Further studies are needed in order to determine whether higher intensities and/or longer exercise interventions would induce physiological benefits while still being feasible and safe.



Keywords: physical exercise; anxiety; non-pharmacological treatment.

Cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for smoking alcoholics in outpatients

Flávia Melo Campos Leite Guimarães; Antonio Egidio Nardi; Adriana Cardoso; Alexandre Martins Valença; Eduardo Guedes da Conceição; Anna Lucia Spear King

MEDICALEXPRESS 2014;1(6):336-340 - ORIGINAL RESEARCH

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OBJECTIVE: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is a therapy based on cognitive and behavioral techniques: cognitive psychological education, cognitive restructuring, interoceptive exposure, breathing exercises and relaxation, all aiming at behavioral changes. The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a specific model of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for alcoholic outpatients in the treatment of smoking.
METHOD: Sessions were carried out in two stages: (1) a "stop smoking" stage lasting four weeks, with 3 sessions/ week; (2) a maintenance stage beginning with 2 weeks of a single weekly session, followed by monthly sessions until the end of the one-year treatment.
RESULTS: Forty patients participated in this study, 22 men and 18 women. After a year of treatment, 24 patients had stopped smoking, whereas 16 relapsed during the course of the year; two abandoned treatment. Women showed better results: 77.8% stopped smoking by the end of the treatment, but only 45.4% of the men reached this goal.
CONCLUSION: Patients under treatment for alcoholism submitted to the tobacco treatment program; a majority of them achieved the treatment goal. A growing population of alcoholics and smokers are looking for treatment; this points to the need for a follow-up treatment program for smoking in an Alcoholism Treatment Unit. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy proved to be effective in the treatment of tobacco dependency mainly in women.



Keywords: Addiction; comorbidity; anxiety; withdrawal.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: state of the art, a review

Ana Claudia C. de Ornelas Maia; Luís Moacir Nascimento Pereira; Antonio Egidio Nardi; Adriana Cardoso

MEDICALEXPRESS 2015;2(6):M150601 - REVIEW

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Protocols in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy applied for individual or group for the treatment of anxiety and mood disorders has been found to be effective. Case conceptualization is relevant and essential in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy because it describes and explains patient presentations in ways that inform interventions. Yet the evidence base challenges the claimed benefits of case conceptualization. A systematic review of the literature has been conducted based on data from ISI Web of Knowledge and PubMed. Articles relating to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Protocols in both individual and group therapy procedures were selected. We reviewed 366 articles; we discarded 141, which were not in English, 86, which were reviews and 93 because of inadequate titles. After reading the abstracts a further 18 articles were excluded, leaving 28 to be fully evaluated. Finally, 19 were selected for the final review. These articles that describe Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy treatment for panic disorder, which were effective when patients were also treated by a psychiatrist. Depressive symptoms were only mildly reduced with cognitive therapy in patients seeking the acquisition of coping skills requiring deliberate efforts and reflective thought. Actually, changes in despair thoughts and behaviors require less rumination of negative interpretation of depressive patients. Finally, the Unified Protocol is an efficient procedure for group treatment in cases of generalized anxiety and mood disorders.



Keywords: Protocols, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, conceptualization.

Social networking, a new online addiction: a review of Facebook and other addiction disorders

Eduardo Guedes; Antonio Egidio Nardi; Flávia Melo Campos Leite Guimarães; Sergio Machado; Anna Lucia Spear King

MEDICALEXPRESS 2016;3(1):M160101 - REVIEW

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INTRODUCTION: Facebook is the world's most widely accessed social network, where millions of people intercommunicate. Behavioral and psychological changes relate to abusive and uncontrolled use creating severe impacts on users' life.
METHOD: A critical revision was performed through MedLine, Lilacs, SciELO and Cochrane databases using the terms: "Facebook Addiction," "Social Network Sites," "Facebook Abuse." The search covered the past 5 years up to January 2015. Articles that examine dependence on Facebook in the general population were included; we analyzed how this concept evolved over the last five years, and hope to contribute to the better understanding of the issue and its impacts.
RESULTS: Although controversial, published reports correlate Facebook addiction to mechanisms of reward and gratification. Some users developed an abusive relationship stimulated by the false feeling of satisfaction or as a way to feel better or more self-assured (increased level of excitement or escape). Studies from several countries indicate different prevalence, probably due to lack of consensus, and the use of different denominations, giving rise to the adoption of different diagnostic criteria.
CONCLUSION: Social Networks are modern communication tools; however, not only benefits, but also subsequent damage caused by its abusive use must be monitored. Many users with abusive usage and dependence recognize significant losses in their personal, professional, academic, social and family lives. Further investigation is needed to determine if abusive Facebook usage is a new psychiatric classification or merely the substrate of other disorders.



Keywords: Facebook Addiction, Facebook Abuse, Social Media Addiction, Social Media Abuse, Social Networking Sites Addiction.

Working memory dysfunction in insomniac adults: a systematic metanalytical review

Bárbara Monteiro; Maristela Candida; Suzana Monteiro; Flávia Paes; Ti-Fei Yuan; Ang Li; Xin Sun; Nuno Barbosa F. Rocha; Carlos Campos; Antonio Egidio Nardi; Sergio Machado

MEDICALEXPRESS 2016;3(2):M160202 - REVIEW

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BACKGROUND: Insomnia is the most commonly occurring sleep disorder: recent reports estimate that 25-30% of adults in the general population occasional instances of experience insomnia, while 10% suffer from disturbances severe enough to meet diagnostic criteria for insomnia. Little is known about the mechanisms, causes, clinical course, and consequences of this condition. Over 30 studies have been published on the matter but only a small proportion has found differences in the working memory of individuals with vs. without insomnia.
OBJECTIVE: To summarize evidence regarding the differences in working memory performance between insomniac vs. normal adult sleepers.
METHODS: The survey was conducted using an advanced search in the ISI Web of Science and MEDLINE/PubMed with the terms "sleep", "insomnia" and "working memory" as major descriptors; these were crossed with the following keywords: "psychological tests", "neuropsychology" and "performance".
RESULTS: A total of 112 articles were identified in the search conducted in PubMed and Web of Science. After the screening, 102 articles unrelated to the proposed theme were excluded. Thus, 10 articles were analyzed by the eligibility and exclusion criteria, and included in this systematic review.
CONCLUSION: The information resulting from the analysis of the reviewed articles suggests that mild, but not definitive deficits in cognitive performance might be masked by insignificant disparities in studies comparing insomniac individuals with normal sleepers. This shortcoming can be circumvented by larger and better-characterized samples, together with optimized methodological control of factors which might otherwise result in confounding variations among participants.



Keywords: Insomnia, working memory, cognitive performance.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for schizophrenia: an overview on efficacy, recent trends and neurobiological findings

Maristela Candida; Carlos Campos; Bárbara Monteiro; Nuno Barbosa F. Rocha; Flávia Paes; António Egídio Nardi; Sérgio Machado

MEDICALEXPRESS 2016;3(5):M160501 - REVIEW

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OBJECTIVE: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has been recommended by several international guidelines as the gold-standard treatment to address the needs of patients with schizophrenia. This review provides an overview on recent advances regarding CBT for schizophrenia.
METHODS: An electronic search was performed on PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science and Cochrane Database, using the key-words: "schizophrenia"; "psychosis"; "cognitive-behavioral therapy", "CBT"and "psychotherapy".
RESULTS: Numerous systematic reviews support the immediate and long-term efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to reduce positive and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. In the last decade, CBT for schizophrenia has been applied to clinical high-risk subjects and delivered using innovative approaches (low intensity, web-based and self-guided). Brain regions and networks which support high-level cognitive functions have been associated with CBT responsiveness. There is preliminary evidence indicating that CBT induces a prefrontal dependent increase in the top-down modulation of social threat activation.
CONCLUSION: In the last decade, CBT for schizophrenia has explored new treatment outcomes, targeted acute and pre-clinical populations and provided alternative methods to reach more patients and reduce intervention costs. The patients' neurocognitive profile seems to play a critical role in treatment response and combining CBT with cognitive remediation may allow to enhance therapeutic effects. Although CBT for schizophrenia is widely established as a gold-standard practice, future studies using innovative CBT protocols, exploring brain-related predictors and treatment outcomes may allow this intervention to be more effective, personalized and to reach a wider number of patients.



Keywords: Cognitive-behavioral therapy; Schizophrenia; Psychosis; Neurobiological; Neuroplasticity.

Association between depression severity and executive functioning in late-life depression: a systematic review

Suzana Monteiro; Bárbara Monteiro; Maristela Candida; Nathalia Adler; Carlos Campos; Nuno Barbosa F. Rocha; Flávia Paes; Antônio Egidio Nardi; Sergio Machado

MEDICALEXPRESS 2016;3(6):M160601 - REVIEW

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OBJECTIVE: Late-life depression is an under-diagnosed and under-treated disease that reduces the well-being of older adults. Executive dysfunction is another critical impairment in elderly depressed individuals which further disrupts their everyday functioning. This systematic review aims to analyze the association between executive function and depression severity in elderly individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder.
METHOD: The studies were retrieved from MEDLINE/PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and PsychInfo, after a search strategy combining the terms "depression", "executive function", "neuropsychological assessment", "elderly" and "late life". Study selection, data collection and quality ratings was performed by two independent raters.
RESULTS: A total of 1,130 articles were found but only 8 studies met the defined eligibility criteria and evaluated the association between depression severity and executive functioning. Six out of 8 studies found an association between depression severity and executive function, with correlations ranging from small to large (r= -0.15 to -0.53). The included reports had several methodological limitations such as selective data reporting, non-comprehensive executive function assessment and not controlling potential biases.
CONCLUSION: Depression severity may be more strongly correlated with a specific set of executive abilities although it also seems to be a broad-based association with executive functioning as a whole. Future high-quality prospective studies are recommended in order to understand the causal relationship between depression severity and executive functioning taking into account possible mediators such as age-related or neurodegenerative cognitive impairment, educational level and other clinic characteristics (e.g. age of onset, medication).



Keywords: Late-life Depression, Major Depressive Disorder, Executive Function.

Treatment outcomes in patients with Internet Addiction and anxiety

Veruska Santos; Rafael Freire; Morená Zugliani; Patricia Cirillo; Hugo H.K. Santos; Antonio Egidio Nardi; Anna Lucia Spear King

MEDICALEXPRESS 2017;4(2):M170206 - ORIGINAL RESEARCH

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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of a treatment for Internet addiction and anxiety disorders, using cognitive behavioral therapy combined with medication, and to analyze the relationship between anxiety and Internet addiction.
METHOD: An open clinical trial included 84 patients (42 in the "comorbidities" group; 42 in the "no comorbidities" group) seeking treatment for anxiety symptoms and/or Internet Addiction. The subjects responded to The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0; the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), the Hamilton Depression Scale (HDRS), Clinical Global Impressions Severity and Improvement (CGI-S and CGI-I) and the Young Internet Addiction Scale (IAT). Patients who had only Internet addiction received psychoeducation on conscious internet use and bibliotherapy; they were defined as the group without comorbidities; patients diagnosed with Internet addiction and anxiety disorder (the group with comorbidities) were forwarded for pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy.
RESULTS: Both Internet Addiction and anxiety decreased after treatment; the average of Hamilton Anxiety Scale of the "comorbidities" group at the beginning was 33.9 ± 7.6, suggesting severe anxiety, and at the end of treatment it was 15.0 ± 5.1, suggesting mild anxiety and a significant improvement. The average Internet Addiction score at the beginning was 67.8 ± 9.0; at the end of the psychotherapy an average score of 37.7 ± 11.4 was registered, indicating a notable and highly significant improvement.
CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between anxiety and Internet Addiction existed and was strong. Treatment significantly improved both.



Keywords: Internet Addiction, Anxiety, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

Validation of the Cell Phone Dependence Scale

Anna Lucia Spear King1; Eduardo Guedes; Flávia Leite Guimarães; Mariana King Pádua; Hugo Kegler dos Santos; Douglas Rodrigues; Lucio Lage Gonçalves; Antonio Egidio Nardi

MEDICALEXPRESS 2019;6(0): - ORIGINAL ARTICLE

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BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The boundary between cellphone use and abuse is quite tenuous. Research is required to evaluate the use of this device interacting in the everyday life of users, whether to speak or to perform tasks.
OBJECTIVE: To construct a novel and specific scale to evaluate cellphone dependence checking its psychometric properties for clarity, accuracy and reliability.
METHODS: Validation of a Cellphone Dependence Scale (CPDS) was performed in 5 phases: 1- initial scale construction with 20 questions, 2- expert evaluation, 3- application to 200 volunteers, 4- statistical analysis and results, and 5- elaboration of the final version of the CPDS.
RESULTS: We used the R statistical program Version 3.4.2 and the “dplyr” package to present the descriptive statistics, the hypotheses tests of differences of means and the factorial analysis. The results provided a validated and accepted final version for CPDS. The last step of the study was to calculate Cronbach’s alpha, in order to measure the internal consistency of the questionnaire. The value found was 0.897, which is considered very good.
CONCLUSIONS: This project resulted in the construction of the final CPDS version suitable for the clinical context and to be used in the conduct of research on cellphone dependence. CPDS may contribute to future studies, conscious use of cellphones, harm reduction, and improved quality of life vis-à-vis the cellphone.



Keywords: Digital dependence; cellphone; digital technologies; behavior; disorder.

Validation of a scale to evaluate Digital Dependence of Employees

Lucio Lage Gonçalves; Antonio Egidio Nardi; Mariana King Pádua; Eduardo Guedes; Hugo Kegler dos Santos; Flavia Leite Guimarães; Douglas Rodrigues; Anna Lucia Spear King

MEDICALEXPRESS 2019;6(0): - ORIGINAL ARTICLE

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BACKGROUND: The evolution of technologies and mobility, new digital resources have emerged transforming human behavior. These include the abusive use of digital devices, leading to various dependences regarding the way people use technology. Collective environments also begin to exhibit symptoms of such dependences.
OBJECTIVE: Validate a Digital Dependence of Employees Scale (DDES), applied to personnel not holding leadership positions in organizations.
METHOD: Data were collected via Internet. The sample totaled 301 volunteers from a state-owned company, of which 294 were statistically validated. Participants were asked to answer 20 questions prepared by experts. After the collection procedure, a database was created for statistical analysis.
RESULTS: Statistical analysis procedure including factorial analysis was conducted, which confirmed data adequacy. Three statistical criteria were used: Bartlett Sphericity test, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Criterion and Factorial analysis, including Screeplot; the latter determined adequate commonalities, indicating the cancellation of only 1 out of the 20 original scale questions. The internal consistency of the scale measured through the Cronbach Alpha Coefficient showed a positive result of 0.764. Thus, scale validation objectives were achieved.
CONCLUSION: The DDES scale was considered validated to be applied to employees in organizational environments. The limitations found to apply the scale did not compromise its results.



Keywords: digital dependence; digital dependence of employees; scale; DDES.

Validation of a scale to assess Facebook dependence

Eduardo Guedes; Mariana King Pádua; Hugo Kegler dos Santos; Douglas Rodrigues; Lucio Lage Gonçalves; Flávia Leite Guimarães; Antonio Egidio Nardi; Anna Lucia Spear King

MEDICALEXPRESS 2019;6(0): - ORIGINAL ARTICLE

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BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Facebook is a social network that has become part of the everyday life of contemporary humanity and is notably the most accessed digital tool, worldwide; through it, one can simultaneously relate to millions of people, as a source of information, communication or entertainment.
OBJECTIVE: To produce and validate a scale to evaluate Facebook dependence (FDS).
METHOD: Validation was performed in 5 phases: 1- initial scale construction with 20 questions, 2- expert evaluation, 3- application in 200 volunteers, 4- statistical analysis and results, and 5- elaboration of the final 18-question validated version of FDS.
RESULTS: We obtained a descriptive statistical analysis, a clear-cut separation of dependents vs. non-dependents and a successful factorial analysis. These results provided a validated version of FDS.
CONCLUSIONS: We were able to construct the validated final version of FDS with 18 questions appropriate to the clinical contexts and to be used in conducting research on Facebook dependence. This scale will contribute to future research related to this specific digital dependence, hopefully reducing harmful effects and improving quality of life.



Keywords: digital dependence; human behavior; Facebook; social network.

Validation of the scale to evaluate physical damages related to the Abusive Use of Technology in daily life (PDAUTS)

Mariana Spear King Lins de Pádua; Anna Lucia Spear King; Eduardo Guedes; Flávia Leite Guimarães; Lucio Lage Gonçalves; Hugo Kegler dos Santos; Douglas Rodrigues; Antonio Egidio Nardi

MEDICALEXPRESS 2019;6(0): - ORIGINAL ARTICLE

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BACKGROUND INFORMATION: New computer technologies, namely smart cellphones and tablets, among others, interacting along the daily life of individuals may contribute toward the rise of problems: depression, stress and physical damage (undue postures, upper and lower extremity disorders, vision problems, obesity), all of them related to excessive time spent on technological equipment; together with inadequate furniture, quality of life can be seriously affected.
OBJECTIVE: To validate a scale to evaluate physical damage related to the Abusive Use of Technology (PDAUTS) in daily life.
METHODS: Validation of the PDAUTS was performed through 5 phases: (1) initial scale construction with 20 questions; (2) expert evaluation of questions; (3) application to 200 volunteers; (4) statistical analysis of the results; (5) preparation of the final validated version, retaining the 20 questions.
RESULTS: We used the R statistical program, version 3.4.2 and the “dplyr” package to present the descriptive statistics, the hypothesis tests of mean differences and the factor analysis. The results provided a validated final version for PDAUTS. The last step of the study was to calculate Cronbach’s alpha parameter, in order to measure the internal consistency of the scale. The value found was 0.897, which in is considered very good.
CONCLUSION: The validated PDAUTS allowed us to evaluate physical damage in each subject and design adequate training and treatment programs, reducing overall impairments and contributing to the improvement in quality of life.



Keywords: Digital dependency; physical damage; ergonomics; digital technologies; reduction.

Validation of a Scale to evaluate Pathological Digital Game Dependence

Anna Lucia Spear King1; Mariana King Pádua; Eduardo Guedes; Lucio Lage Gonçalves; Flávia Leite Guimarães; Hugo Kegler dos Santos; Douglas Rodrigues; Antonio Egidio Nardi

MEDICALEXPRESS 2019;6(0): - ORIGINAL ARTICLE

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BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Digital game or video game disorders have been recently (June 2018) included in ICD-11 (International Classification of Diseases) by the World Health Organization (WHO). The disorder can occur with or without an internet connection.
OBJECTIVE: Validation of a scale to evaluate the dependence of pathological digital game (PDGD).
METHOD: Validation of the PDGD was performed in 5 phases: (1) initial scale construction with 20 questions, (2) expert assessment, (3) application to 200 volunteers, (4) statistical analysis and production of results using statistical programs, (5) elaboration of the final validated scale.
RESULTS: We used the R statistical program Version 3.4.2 and the “dplyr” package to present the descriptive statistics, the hypotheses tests of differences of means and the factorial analysis. The last step was to calculate Cronbach’s alpha, in order to measure the internal consistency of the questionnaire. The value found was 0.955, which is very good.
CONCLUSIONS: This research allowed us to construct a final version of the PDGD suitable for the clinical contexts and usable in research on the dependence of digital games. This scale may contribute to future studies, conscious use of technologies, reduction of physical and emotional damage and improvement of the quality of life.



Keywords: Digital game; video-game; game disorder, gaming behavior.

Validation of a scale to evaluate the abusive use of technologies (Computer, cell phone, tablet, among others)

Anna Lucia Spear King; Mariana King Pádua; Eduardo Guedes; Lucio Lage Gonçalves; Flávia Leite Guimarães; Hugo Kegler dos Santos; Douglas Rodrigues; Antonio Egidio Nardi

MEDICALEXPRESS 2019;6(0): - ORIGINAL ARTICLE

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BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Daily, prolonged interactivity of individuals with technologies (computer, cell phone, tablet, among others) impacts life and significantly changes habits, behaviors, personal and social relationships. Technologies lead to a multitude of advantages, but attention is required concerning possible damages.
OBJECTIVE: Validation of a scale to evaluate the abuse use of technologies (TAUS).
METHOD: TAUS validation was carried out in 5 phases: (1) initial scale construction with 20 questions, (2) expert evaluation, (3) application to 200 volunteers, (4) statistical analysis and results, (5) preparation of the final version of the validated TAUS. We used the R statistical program and the “dplyr” package version 3.4.2 to present descriptive statistics, to test hypotheses of means differences and for factorial analysis. Factor analysis was used for the orthogonal model. The method used was Principal Components based on Spearman’s correlation matrix.
RESULTS: The results provided a final, validated version of a TAUS suitable for clinical and research contexts. The last step of the study was to calculate Cronbach’s alpha, in order to measure the internal consistency of the scale. The value found was 0.910, which is considered good.
CONCLUSIONS: This Technology Abuse Scale may contribute to future studies, to the conscious use of technologies, to a reduction of physical and emotional damage and to an improvement of the subjects’ quality of life.



Keywords: Abusive use, digital dependence, technologies, mental disorder.

Validation of the scale for assessing depression and its relation to technology dependence

Flávia Leite Guimarães; Mariana King Pádua; Eduardo Guedes; Lucio Lage Gonçalves; Hugo Kegler dos Santos; Douglas Rodrigues; Antonio Egidio Nardi; Anna Lucia Spear King

MEDICALEXPRESS 2019;6(0): - ORIGINAL ARTICLE

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BACKGROUND: The daily coexistence with the technologies (computer, mobile phone, tablet, among others), begins to produce significant changes in human behavior. We have observed that there is an association between dependence on technologies and major depressive disorder, as well as with other mental disorders.
OBJECTIVE: To validate a scale for assessing depression and its relation to dependence on everyday technologies.
METHODS: Validation of a Technology Dependent Depression Scale (TDDS) was performed in 5 phases: (1) initial scale construction with 20 questions; (2) expert evaluation; (3) application to 100 volunteers, (4) statistical analysis and results, (5) preparation of the final version of the validated TDDS.
RESULTS: We used the R statistical program, version 3.4.2 and the “dplyr” package to present descriptive statistics, hypotheses tests of mean differences and factorial analysis. The results provided a validated and approved final version for TDDS.
CONCLUSIONS: We constructed the final version of the validated TDDS, which is adequate for clinical contexts and to be used in future research. All the psychometric properties were checked for accuracy, reliability, presentation, clarity, pertinence and comprehension of the instrument conferring validity to the end-product.



Keywords: Digital dependence; major depressive disorder; depression; social networks; technologies.

Scale validation to evaluate WhatsApp dependence (WADS)

Anna Lucia Spear King; Mariana King Pádua; Eduardo Guedes; Flávia Leite Guimarães; Lucio Lage Gonçalves; Hugo Kegler dos Santos; Douglas Rodrigues; Antonio Egidio Nardi

MEDICALEXPRESS 2019;6(0): - ORIGINAL ARTICLE

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BACKGROUND INFORMATION: One of the most popular social networks is WhatsApp. Abusive use of this tool has produced significant changes in behavioral and social behaviors and habits of individuals. Therefore, research is needed to allow us to specifically evaluate the interaction of WhatsApp with the daily lives of individuals.
OBJECTIVE: Production and validation of a scale to evaluate WhatsApp dependence (WADS). METHODS: Validation performed in 5 phases: 1- initial scale construction with 20 questions, 2- expert evaluation, 3- application in volunteers, 4- statistical analysis and results, and 5- elaboration of the final version of the validated WADS.
RESULTS: We obtained a descriptive statistical analysis, a clear-cut separation of dependents vs. non-dependents and a successful factorial analysis. These results provided a validated version of WADS.
CONCLUSIONS: We were able to construct a final version of WADS adequate to clinical contexts and to be used in future research to evaluate dependence of this digital tool. WADS will contribute to the conscious use of WhatsApp, hopefully reducing harmful effects and improving quality of life.



Keywords: WhatsApp; digital dependence; digital technologies, social networks.